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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983)

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily lives.

Bell Labs is the source of many significant contributions, of course, in the area of telephony, but also in memory devices, imaging devices, system organization, computers and software technology, as well as acoustics, optics, switching, transmission, wireless and data communication. New principles, new materials, new devices, and new systems from Bell Telephone Laboratories resulted in new industries, hundreds of new products, and thousands of new jobs. The invention of the transistor in 1947, and subsequent advances in related solid-state device and circuit technology formed the basis of a multibillion dollar global industry and ultimately enabled the digital world. Shannon's seminal paper titled >"A Mathematical Theory of Communication," published over 60 years ago, gave birth to Information Theory and has stood as the guiding foundation for communications scientists and engineers in their quest for faster, more efficient, and more robust communications systems ever since. The charge-coupled device (CCD), a technology that transforms patterns of light into useful digital information, is the basis for many forms of modern digital imaging. It has launched entirely new industries and markets and is widely used in devices as diverse as digital cameras, video cameras, and bar code readers as well as in security monitoring, medical endoscopy, modern astronomy and video conferencing. Optical technology and systems, from earliest advances in lasers to low-loss fiber, opto-electronic waveguide devices, and high capacity WDM transmission systems have enabled worldwide connectivity to build a truly global community. Cellular telephone service, the concept that multiple lower-power transmitters could be spread throughout a region employing automatic call handoff and frequency reuse changed the face of communications. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) smart antenna technology in concert with LTE, based on OFDM technology, will define next generation wireless, delivering wider coverage and higher throughput.

"Technological innovation" is more than just invention. It is a process, often long and costly, of transforming new scientific knowledge into feasible technology, introducing it to use, and making its benefits available to the public. âTechnical integrationâ is intended to emphasize the more subtle flow of an intangibleâengineering information and understanding. Not only has Bell Labs innovated, but it also showed the world technical integration of the innovations. The Bell System Technical Journal was a key enabler for this achievement.

With this posting of the Bell System Technical Journal from volume 1 issue 1 in July 1922 to the final issue published in December 1983, we are pleased to be able to open the vault of this knowledge to our global technical colleagues.

Rod Alferness
Chief Scientist, Bell Labs

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Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 20-32. A Magnetic Curve Tracer. (Haworth, F.E.)
Topics: magnetic, fluxmeter, deflection, curve, current, loop, coil, hysteresis, specimen, cell, hysteresis...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 33-45. A Multi-Channel Television Apparatus. (Ives, Herbert E.)
Topics: image, frequency, scanning, disc, elements, photoelectric, apparatus, television, image elements,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 96-115. Absolute Calibration of Condenser Transmitters. (Sivian, L.J.)
Topics: transmitter, calibration, diaphragm, acoustic, electrode, field, condenser, pressure, sound,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 149-152. Abstracts of Technical Articles from Bell System Sources .
Topics: noise, molded, contact, inductance, contacts, resistance, spheres, flux, microscopic, loud, loud...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 63-95. Certain Factors Affecting the Gain of Directive Antennas. (Southworth, G. C.)
Topics: sin, array, antenna, antennas, couplets, equation, arrays, diagrams, linear, calculated, english...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 46-62. Condenser and Carbon Microphones - Their Construction and Use. (Jones, W.C.)
Topics: diaphragm, condenser, microphone, sound, damping, frequency, calibration, carbon, pressure,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 153-154. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: bell, telephone, transmission, western, engaged, chiefly, assistant, development, johns,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 132-148. Paragutta, A New Insulating Material for Submarine Cables. (Kemp, A.R.)
Topics: gutta, percha, rubber, electrical, water, submarine, balata, paragutta, insulating, insulation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 116-131. Rating the Transmission Performance of Telephone Circuits. (Martin, W.H.)
Topics: transmission, circuit, telephone, rating, characteristics, ratings, circuits, performance,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 1-19. The Detection of Two Modulated Waves Which Differ Slightly in Carrier Frequency. (Aiken, Charles B.)
Topics: frequency, frequencies, desired, carrier, undesired, interfering, modulation, amplitude,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 342-345. Abstracts of Technical Articles From Bell System Sources.
Topics: fatigue, transmission, sheath, apparatus, cadmium, color, coatings, electrolysis, abstracts, alloy,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 273-283. Bayes' Theorium - An Expository Presentation. (Molina, Edward C.)
Topics: probability, priori, posteriori, unknown, probabilities, existence, observed, theorem, balls,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 346-348. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: telephone, american, telegraph, electric, engineering, cornell, department, bell, transmission,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 284-341. Extentions to the Theory and Design of Electric Wave-Filters. (Zobel, Otto J.)
Topics: impedance, impedances, image, transmitting, frequency, networks, shunt, terminal, frequencies,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 243-264. Overseas Radio Extentions to Wire Telephone Networks. (Espenschied, Lloyd; Wilson, William)
Topics: transmission, radio, telephone, circuits, circuit, wire, atlantic, transmitting, transatlantic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 265-272. Some Optical Features in Two-Way Television. (Ives, Herbert E.)
Topics: scanning, caesium, optical, disc, lamp, potassium, cells, beam, apparatus, image, caesium cells,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 231-240. Status of Cooperative Work on Joint Use of Poles. (Martin, J.C.; Huber, H.L.)
Topics: joint, telephone, circuits, poles, protective, voltages, inductive, power, clearances,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 206-230. Status of Joint Development and Research on Low-Frequency Induction. (Conwell, R.N.; Warren, H.S.)
Topics: voltages, power, induced, telephone, ground, circuits, residual, induction, circuit, impedance,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 184-205. Status of Joint Development and Research on Noise Frequency Induction. (Wills, H.L.; Blackwell, O.B.)
Topics: telephone, circuits, power, currents, frequency, subcommittee, circuit, voltages, induction,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 241-242. Symposium on Coordination of Power and Telephone Plant, Closing Remarks. (Gherardi, B.)
Topics: power, symposium, technical, cooperative, companies, satisfactory, telephone, coordination,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 155-158. Symposium on Coordination of Power and Telephone Plant. (Pack, R.F. 241-242)
Topics: bell, companies, inductive, power, general, cooperative, gherardi, telephone, subcommittee, joint,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 2. April 1931 pp 159-183. Trends in Telephone and Power Practise as Affecting Coordination. (Harrison, W.H.; Silver, A.E.)
Topics: coordination, circuits, telephone, power, voltages, practise, trends, transmission, currents,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 525-528. Abstracts of Technical Articles from Bell System Sources.
Topics: railroad, bell, telephone, microscope, images, meter, photoelectric, sound, instrumentalities,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 382-407. Bridge Methods for Locating Resistance Faults on Cable Wires. (Henneberger, T.C.; Edwards, P.G.)
Topics: resistance, wires, cable, resistances, faults, bridge, insulation, varley, conductor, locating,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 529-530. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: telegraph, development, telephone, american, brigham, manufacturing, transmission, electric, plant,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 432-471. Developments in the Manufacture of Lead-Covered Paper-Insulated Telephone Cable. (Shea, John R.)
Topics: cable, lead, telephone, vacuum, storage, bell, capacitance, wire, journal, insulation, die block,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 472-484. Effect of Ground Permeability on Ground Return Circuits. (Wise, W. Howard)
Topics: permeability, ground, cos, equations, journal, impedance, log, series, computation, formulas,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 408-419. Mutual Impedance of Grounded Wires Lying on the Surface of the Earth. (Foster, Ronald M.)
Topics: impedance, mutual, sin, formula, integral, electric, earth, grounded, force, wires, propagation...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 485-513. Negative Impedances and the Twin 21-Type Repeater. (Crisson, George)
Topics: circuit, impedance, negative, resistance, impedances, terminals, amplifier, series, repeater,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 514-524. New Standard Specifications for Wood Poles. (Jones, R.L.)
Topics: poles, specifications, butt, fiber, standard, pole, pine, knots, requirement, class, single knots,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 349-373. Some Physical Characteristics of Speech and Music. (Fletcher, Harvey)
Topics: speech, pitch, average, melodic, intensity, octaves, cycles, peak, octave, power, peak power, pitch...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 374-381. The Statistical Energy-Frequency Spectrum of Random Disturbances. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: statistical, disturbances, spectrum, probability, static, preceding, amplitudes, elementary,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 3. July 1931 pp 420-431. Transients in Grounded Wires on the Earth's Surface. (Riordan, John)
Topics: exp, grounded, erf, integration, voltage, equation, erfc, wires, function, integral, exp iut, error...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 684-690. Abstracts of Technical Articles From Bell System Sources.
Topics: frequency, basilar, transmission, frequencies, vibrates, transmitting, abstracts, radio, bell,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 601-615. Application of Printing Telegraph to Long-Wave Radio Circuits. (Bailey, Austin; McCann, T.A.)
Topics: noise, telegraph, radio, cent, errors, rochester, transmission, printing, receiving, printer,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 616-627. Audible Frequency Ranges of Music, Speech and Noise. (Snow, W.B.)
Topics: frequency, audible, frequencies, cycles, observers, bass, range, ranges, tests, noises, audible...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 628-655. Contemporary Advances in Physics, XXII - Transmutation. (Darrow, Karl K.)
Topics: protons, corpuscles, nuclei, curve, particles, atoms, range, curves, ranges, transmutation, ranges...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 691-692. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: telephone, bell, telegraph, university, western, electric, radio, development, american, engaged,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 656-683. Developments in Short-Wave Directive Antennas. (Bruce, E.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directive, horizontal, wire, vertical, tilt, signal, directivity, wave, vertical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 565-576. Moving-Coil Telephone Receivers and Microphones. (Wente, E.C.; Thuras, A.L.)
Topics: diaphragm, microphone, frequency, receiver, acoustic, mechanical, impedance, coil, frequencies,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 577-600. Some Developments in Common Frequency Broadcasting. (Gillett, G.D.)
Topics: frequency, stations, broadcasting, simultaneous, carrier, strength, distortion, phase, isochronism,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 531-564. The Interconnection of Telephone Systems - Graded Multiples. (Wilkinson, R.I.)
Topics: trunks, graded, subgroup, multiple, calls, theoretical, trunk, load, interconnection, subgroups,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 185-194. Abstracts of Technical Articles from Bell System Sources.
Topics: photoelectric, intensity, transmission, decay, reverberation, methods, currents, sound,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 67-100. Constant Frequency Oscillators. (Llewellyn, F.B.)
Topics: frequency, circuit, oscillator, stabilizing, impedance, plate, tube, grid, stabilization, vacuum,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 148-184. Contemporary Advances in Physics, XXIII - Data and Nature of Cosmic Rays. (Darrow, Karl K.)
Topics: rays, cosmic, ionization, electrons, ionizing, particles, curve, millikan, air, radioactive,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 195-196. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: bell, telephone, university, western, transmission, engineering, electric, engaged, electrical,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 126-147. Regeneration Theory. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: integral, amplifier, values, expression, lim, curve, network, integration, regeneration, integrand,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 101-125. Some Physical Properties of Wiping Solders. (McLean, D.A.; Peek, R.L., Jr.; Schumacher, E.E.)
Topics: solder, solders, log, plasticity, wiping, equation, sample, values, porosity, liquid, bell system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 1-27. The Cathode Ray Oscillograph. (Johnson, J.B.)
Topics: cathode, tube, ray, oscillograph, plates, deflector, voltage, electrons, tubes, journal, deflector...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 28-52. The Operation of Vacuum Tubes as Class B and Class C Amplifiers. (Fay, C.E.)
Topics: grid, plate, output, current, dynamic, screen, tube, voltage, bias, curves, technical journal,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 1. January 1932 pp 53-66. The Time Factor in Telephone Transmission. (Blackwell, O.B.)
Topics: transmission, circuits, circuit, telephone, bell, technical, delay, echo, waves, transmitted,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 197-212. A New Key West-Havana Carrier Telephone Cable. (Affel, H.A.; Gorton, W.S.; Chesnut, R.W.)
Topics: cable, telephone, carrier, submarine, key, cables, havana, frequency, telegraph, apparatus,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 293-317. A Voice and Ear for Telephone Measurements. (Inglis, A.H.; Gray, C.H.G.; Jenkins, R.T.)
Topics: artificial, ear, receiver, voice, frequency, impedance, transmitter, human, acoustic, measurements,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 318-323. Abstracts of Technical Articles from Bell System Sources.
Topics: oxide, barium, oxidation, magnetization, thermionic, noise, clocks, loomis, oxygen, abstracts, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 283-292. Cathode Sputtering - A Commercial Application. (Fruth, Hal F.)
Topics: sputtering, cathode, diaphragm, diaphragms, gold, bleeder, bell, und, electrolytic, metal, cathode...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 231-244. Cellulose Acetate Treatment for Textile Insulation - Development of the Manufacturing Process. (Avery, C.R.; Kress, H.)
Topics: acetone, cellulose, wire, coating, fibers, drying, textile, acetate, solution, insulation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 213-230. Cellulose Acetate Treatment for Textile Insulation - Engineering Development. (Wood, E.B.; Brobst, D.R.)
Topics: acetate, cellulose, insulation, textile, treatment, electrical, insulated, wire, characteristics,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 324-325. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: telephone, western, development, bell, massachusetts, telegraph, engaged, electric, ment,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 264-282. Precision Methods Used in Constructing Electric Wave Filters for Carrier Systems. (Harris, G.R.)
Topics: coil, filter, filters, coils, resonant, inductance, shield, frequency, attenuation, frequencies,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 2. April 1932 pp 245-263. The Development of a Handset for Telephone Stations. (Jones, W.C.; Inglis, A.H.)
Topics: transmitter, handset, carbon, diaphragm, resistance, granular, receiver, deskstand, telephone,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 402-410. A Method of Measuring Acoustic Impedance. (Flanders, P.B.)
Topics: impedance, acoustic, tube, electrical, measuring, infinite, frequency, reactance, inch, pressure,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 477-481. Abstracts of Technical Articles from Bell System Sources.
Topics: surface, bell, telephone, ions, adions, reverberation, carrier, frequency, abstracts, phenomena,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 451-461. An Efficient Miniature Condenser Microphone System. (Harrison, H.C.; Flanders, P.B.)
Topics: microphone, condenser, miniature, pressure, sound, diaphragm, diffraction, cavity, resonance,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 482-483. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: telephone, transmission, university, engaged, bell, electric, electrical, development, institute,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 327-333. Henry as an Electrical Pioneer. (Gherardi, Bancroft)
Topics: henry, electrical, telegraph, joseph, pioneer, magnet, electric, telephone, motor, contributions,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 383-401. Magnet Steels and Permanent Magnets - Relationships Among Their Magnetic Properties. (Scott, K.L.)
Topics: magnet, curves, magnetic, magnets, steel, values, demagnetization, curve, magnet steels, bars, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 334-367. The Caesium-Oxygen-Silver Photoelectric Cell. (Prescott, C.J., Jr.; Kelly, M.J.)
Topics: caesium, cathode, surface, photoelectric, spectral, cells, response, cell, deposition, oxygen,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 411-450. Transmission Lines for Short-Wave Radio Systems. (Sterba, E.J.; Feldman, C.B.)
Topics: lines, impedance, transmission, conductor, radio, attenuation, radiated, concentric,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 368-382. Two-Way Radio Telephone Circuits. (Wright, S.B.; Mitchell, D.)
Topics: radio, transmitting, relay, circuit, vodas, waves, receiving, transmission, privacy, circuits,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 462-476. Wire Communication Aids to Air Transportation. (Nance, H.H.)
Topics: teletypewriter, weather, circuits, stations, tape, communication, air, circuit, commerce, radio,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 4. October 1932 pp 622-628. Abstracts of Technical Articles from Bell System Sources.
Topics: heater, cathode, fourier, wires, disturbance, circuit, conduit, mortar, tube, frequencies, vacuum...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 4. October 1932 pp 563-575. An Expansion for Laplacian Integrals in Terms of Incomplete Gamma Functions, and Some Applications. (Molina, Edward C.)
Topics: expansion, laplacian, bessel, function, log, journal, incomplete, integrals, integral, theorie,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 4. October 1932 pp 576-607. Contemporary Advances in Physics, XXIV - High-Frequency Phenomena in Gases, First Part. (Darrow, Karl K.)
Topics: electrons, gas, ionized, frequency, values, constant, equation, ions, conductivity, dielectric,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 4. October 1932 pp 629-630. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: telephone, american, chief, institute, engineering, transmission, bell, telegraph, western...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 4. October 1932 pp 520-545. Long Distance Telephone Circuits in Cable. (Clark, A.B.; Osborne, H.S.)
Topics: circuits, cable, circuit, loading, crosstalk, cables, toll, transmission, echo, telephone, cable...